Indigenous Peoples in Brazil and the Amazon

Explore Violence against indigenous peoples in Brazil  – Arbre-magnifique2In 2005, FUNAI believed having marked out 70 % of the claimed lands. At the same time, FUNAI believed that 90 % of the reallocated lands by Brazilian tribes were undergone by companies who came to utilize wealth from its grounds, in the incriminated company a broad superiority of multinational of wood exploitation and societies linked to agro-business (soybean transgenic).

Indigenous Peoples in Brazil

DeforestationHuge and very often illegal logging brought by the economic activity of these firms has got disastrous effects on certain Amerindian groups. The Guarani’s situation of Mato Grosso and Cintas Largas of Amazon, two Indigenous peoples got in contact with “whites” in 1969-1970, is so considered critical, or even hopeless.

Chief-Raoni-Metuktire-world-known-leader-from-the-kayak today FUNAI is a controversial and criticized institution so much by powerful groups of interests that by Indians in Brazil. We can nevertheless pay tribute to him to have broadly known how to help the indigenous peoples in Brazil to gain true political personalities, the only possible guarantee of self-government in democracy.

Menino-Indio-de-Mato-Grosso the corpus of constitutional laws relating to the Indigenous peoples in Brazil, there is first political recognition of the declared Amerindians, for the first time, equal citizens in rights, while before they were assimilated with miners.

Constitutional laws are, of what I understand, a kind of legal upgrade almost similar to the rights of Afro-Brazilians living in quilombos. But here: it does not withdraw the status of the Indian.

young-Indian-Parece-Haliti-from-Mato-GrossoMore than a “simple” upgrade, can we not talk about a “separated” right? Indigenous peoples in Brazil were certainly been separated from the common law for 500 years but does the new status of the Indian comparable to this type of positive constitutionals discrimination? And who, one assumes, does not say his name?

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It is particularly obvious since Brazil ratified in July 2002 the Convention 169 of the ILO (International Organization of Work) relating to Indian and tribal people.

Which shape would take this positive discrimination? The earth !!! All those who at least, once read an article on economic and land structures in South America know that the sharing out is, so unequal and archaic, as you wish that it is properly feudal or, on the contrary, by paradoxes led by financial capitalism, absolutely modern.

arbre-magnifiqueIndeed, in America, the land is worth ideology and history, and the word “Agrarian Reform” is as lethal as it was for the Gracchi of ancient Rome. It is a word that kills peasants and presidents as it killed old legionnaires and tribunes of the plebs. It is a word that continues killing Indigenous people in Brazil. But on their lands! And which lands! 600 territories when cumulated represent an area of 120 million hectares.

These are, on the whole, colossal and devolved territories to only 750 000 people, by taking the highest estimation. Let say rather 15 % of the national territory for not even 1 % of the population.

The polemical question that I ask myself is the following: In the States of post-colonial rights is there de facto a legal regime “separated” for old victims of genocide, or at least those victims who are sufferers from entire known domination as a crime against humanity? The passage of the outcast « without rights » in that of « total victim » doesn’t introduce a new separation for the sake of the same determinisms? How can we not see a kind of racism, the opposite side of a State which pays a slaughtered population, without therefore acknowledging its error?

lularousseffraoniIn fact, the massacre of Indigenous peoples in Brazil has never confessed openly. populations and does not seem ready to do it. That does not stop him from remunerating lands with some voluntarism, even if it means throwing out hundreds of a thousand people from a territory.

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This is what happened especially on April 15th, 2005 when president Lula ratified the sale of 1,7 million hectares where 15 000 Indians of 5 different ethnicities live. The sale was done against the opinion of local government, farmers, stockbreeders, and 300 000 families who have to leave the reservation! (Bernardo Gutiérrez, La Vanguardia, Barcelona, 2006)

The Indios-Caiuquas-Parana-1860The idea is not to deny the right to a fair reward to Indians in Brazil. But so that there is justice, there needs at least a victim, a culprit, and a clearly established compulsory liquidation that puts both parties equally. Otherwise, a court order will not be accepted as « the last word of revenge ».

And yet, Brazilian State, although refusing to acknowledge its guilt, does not hesitate to put the responsibilities on whole families.

The situation becomes complicated when the presence of these families is attributable to the policy of colonization of the military junta (1964-1985) who worked a lot to fill up Amazon by promising lands to peasants of the sertão ruined by successive dryness.

indigenous peoples in Brazil  – These damned souls can consider themselves injured in two ways: on one hand, the promise of a fertile land came to a sudden end, the Amazonian soil being inappropriate to the most part of the subsistence crops.

indigenous peoples in Brazil  – On the other hand, they see themselves once again compelled to banishment in the name of a retro-cession made in what they consider to be a handful of Indian and as profit, financial counterpart which they consider very often deficient.

In a country where every year 50 000 persons die by homicide, the anger of these families can be turned quickly into drama.

 

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